White ash

Silhouette - white ash
  • Latin name: Fraxinus americana L.
  • French name: Frêne blanc
  • Taxonomic Serial Number: 32931
Description

Leaves

  • Leaf - white ash
  • Leaflet with detail of infrequent, rounded teeth along margin - white ash

Form

  • Pinnately compound
  • 5–9 (usually 7) leaflets on a central stalk
  • Leaflets oval to lance-shaped
  • Tapering gradually to each end
  • Leaflets fall individually in autumn
  • Lower surface hairless except along the veins

Length

  • Leaflets 6–15 cm
  • Basal leaflets the shortest
  • Leaf and central stalk 15–25 cm

Colour

  • Upper surface dark green
  • Lower surface very pale green

Autumn colour

  • Bronze-purple

Margin

  • Smooth or with infrequent rounded teeth

Buds

  • Lateral bud and leaf scar - white ash

Form

  • Terminal bud present, blunt
  • Uppermost pair of lateral buds set close to terminal bud
  • No bark showing in-between
  • Leaf scars semicircular, notched in upper surface

Length

  • Terminal bud 5–14 mm

Width

  • Wider than long

Colour

  • Reddish-brown

Twigs

  • Winter twig - white ash

Form

  • Stout, hairless, shiny

Colour

  • Purplish or with a greyish skin

Flowers

Form

  • Apetalous
  • Arranged in panicles

Colour

  • Purple

Structure

  • Dioecious

Floral timing

  • Before or with the leaves

Fruits

  • Fruit - white ash

Form

  • Wing encloses only the tip of the seedcase

Length

  • 2.5–5 cm

Structure

  • Samara

Bark

Form

  • Finely furrowed into thin firm intersecting ridges
  • Regular diamond pattern

Colour

  • Light grey

Wood

Texture

  • Heavy, hard, strong, tough

Colour

  • Light brown

Morphology

  • Straight-grained

Size

Height

  • To 30 m 

Diameter

  • To 150 cm 

Maximum age

  • 200 years

Tree form

  • Silhouette - white ash

Forest-grown

Trunk

  • Long, straight
  • Often branch-free almost to the top

Crown

  • Narrow, pyramidal

Root system 

  • Deep where soil conditions permit

Habitat

Site

  • Deep, well-drained, upland soils

Light tolerance

  • Moderately shade-tolerant

Associated species

  • Other broadleaf trees and occasional conifers

Range

An eastern species

Insects and diseases

Insects and diseases that are found most frequently and/or that cause the most damage in our Canadian forests.

Photos
  • White ash
  • White ash
  • White ash
Distribution map
Distribution map - white ash
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