Red pine

Silhouette - red pine
  • Latin name: Pinus resinosa Ait.
  • French name: Pin rouge
  • Synonym(s): Norway pine
  • Taxonomic Serial Number: 183375
Description

Leaves

  • Needle cross section - red pine
  • Needle bundle - red pine

Form

  • Needles evergreen
  • In bundles of 2
  • Straight, brittle (breaking in half when bent)
  • Pointed
  • Edges finely and sharply toothed
  • Bundle-sheath persistent
  • Dry scale leaves remain at the annual nodes

Length

  • 10–16 cm

Colour

  • Shiny dark green

Buds

  • Bundle sheath in 1st year (left), 2nd year (right) - red pine
  • Terminal and subterminal buds - red pine

Form

  • Sharp-pointed, resinous
  • Scales overlapping, loose, hairy

Length

  • To 2 cm

Colour

  • Reddish-brown

Twigs

Form

  • Stout, shiny, grooved and ridged

Colour

  • Orange to reddish-brown

Seed cones (mature)

  • Cone scale outer surface (left), seed and cone scale inner surface with winged seed (center), cone scale profile (right) - red pine

Form

  • Ovoid, almost stalkless

Length

  • 4–7 cm

Structure

  • Scales slightly thickened at the tips, without prickles

Timing

  • Opening in autumn at maturity to release the seeds
  • Cones are shed the following year, sometimes leaving a few basal scales on the branchlets

Seeds

Form

  • Dull, often mottled

Length

  • Seed about 5 mm
  • Seed wing about 15 mm

Seedlings

Form

  • 5–10 cotyledons, toothless

Length

  • 15–25 mm

Bark

Form

  • Scaly, becoming furrowed into broad, flat, scaly plates with age

Colour

  • Reddish to pinkish

Wood

Texture

  • Relatively light, moderately hard

Colour

  • Pale brown to reddish-brown

Morphology

  • Straight-grained
  • Latewood prominent
  • Sapwood wide

Uses

  • Wood poles and pilings, structural timber

Size

Height

  • To 25 m

Diameter

  • To 75 cm

Maximum age

  • 200 years

Tree form

  • Silhouette - red pine

Forest-grown

Trunk

  • Slender, straight
  • Distinct to the tip on young trees
  • Dead branches soon fall, leaving the trunk clear

Crown

  • Conical on young trees, becoming irregular and flat-topped
  • Upper principal branches upcurved
  • Lower branches spreading horizontally or somewhat drooping, with the foliage crowded toward the tips

Root system

  • Moderately deep, wide-spreading
  • Sometimes with a taproot
  • Lateral roots with sinkers
  • Windfirm

Habitat

Site

  • Sand plains, rock outcrops, and sites where soil fertility is low

Light tolerance

  • Intolerant of shade

Associated species

  • In pure stands or mixed with eastern white pine, jack pine, aspens

Range

Southeastern Manitoba to Newfoundland

Insects and diseases

Insects and diseases that are found most frequently and/or that cause the most damage in our Canadian forests.

Photos
  • Red pine
  • Red pine
  • Red pine
  • Red pine
  • Red pine
  • Red pine
  • Red pine
  • Red pine
  • Red pine
  • Red pine
Distribution map
Distribution map - red pine
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