Eastern white pine

Silhouette - eastern white pine
  • Latin name: Pinus strobus L.
  • French name: Pin blanc
  • Synonym(s): Weymouth pine , Northern white pine
  • Taxonomic Serial Number: 183385
Description

Leaves

  • Needle cross section - eastern white pine
  • Needle bundle - eastern white pine

Form

  • Needles evergreen
  • Remaining on tree for 1–4 years
  • In bundles of 5
  • Slender, straight
  • Triangular in cross-section
  • Flexible, soft
  • Edges finely toothed
  • Bundle-sheath scales deciduous during first season

Length

  • 5–15 cm

Colour

  • Bluish-green with lines of white dots

Buds

  • Terminal and subterminal buds - eastern white pine

Form

  • Slender, sharp-pointed
  • Scales overlapping

Length

  • To 15 mm

Colour

  • Reddish-brown

Twigs

Form

  • Microshoot scars round or oval, set in a crescent-shaped leaf-cushion
  • Hairy, becoming hairless in second season

Colour

  • Green, becoming orange-brown in second season

Seed cones (mature)

  • Cone scale outer surface (left), seed and cone scale inner surface with winged seed (center), cone scale profile (right) - eastern white pine

Form

  • Cylindrical
  • Pendulous

Colour

  • Yellowish-green to light brown when mature

Length

  • 8–20 cm
  • Stalk 2 cm

Structure

  • Scales 50–80, usually in 5 spiral rows
  • Thin, rounded at the tip, without prickles

Timing

  • Seeds and cones shed soon after cones mature

Seeds

Form

  • Mottled

Length

  • Seed 5–8 mm
  • Seed wing about 20 mm

Colour

  • Reddish-brown

Seedlings

Form

  • 6–11 cotyledons, minutely toothed

Length

  • 20–30 mm

Bark

Form

  • Thin, smooth when young
  • With age broken into broad scaly ridges 2–5 cm thick, separated by deep longitudinal furrows

Colour

  • Greyish-green when young, with age becoming dark greyish-brown

Wood

Texture

  • Soft, light, moderately strong

Colour

  • Creamy-white to yellow

Morphology

  • Straight-grained, easily worked
  • Heartwood moderately decay-resistant

Uses

  • Patterns because of its low shrinkage and uniform texture
  • Also doors, moldings, trim, siding, paneling, plywood, furniture, and cabinetwork

Size

Height

  • To 30 m, occasionally larger

Diameter

  • To 100 cm

Maximum age

  • 200 years, occasionally older

Tree form

  • Silhouette - eastern white pine

Open-grown

Crown

  • In young trees, crown conical with regular whorls of branches
  • Fast-growing
  • In mature trees, crown irregular with a few long, stout branches set roughly at right angles to the trunk
  • Branches in upper crown ascending, giving a broadly oval flat-topped outline
  • Often becomes one-sided because of the prevailing wind

Forest-grown

Trunk

  • Often branch-free for lower two-thirds of its height

Crown

  • Columnar

Root system

  • 3–5 moderately deep lateral roots
  • Often sinker roots growing down from them

Habitat

Site

  • Dry sandy soils and rocky ridges to sphagnum bogs
  • Grows best on moist, sandy loam

Light tolerance

  • Thrives in full sunlight
  • Seedlings moderately shade-tolerant
  • Can survive under an open canopy and attain full vigour if shade removed within 20 years

Associated species

  • Usually mixed with other species
Insects and diseases

Insects and diseases that are found most frequently and/or that cause the most damage in our Canadian forests.

Photos
  • Eastern white pine
  • Eastern white pine
  • Eastern white pine
  • Eastern white pine
  • Eastern white pine
  • Eastern white pine
  • Eastern white pine
  • Eastern white pine
  • Eastern white pine
  • Eastern white pine
Distribution map
Distribution map - eastern white pine
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