Spruce cone rusts
Damage, symptoms and biology
These rusts periodically damage cones in localized forest areas and can be a serious problem in spruce seed orchards.
Seeds are not usually formed in diseased cones, and even when they are produced, malformation and resinosis of the cones hinder seed dispersal or extraction. Those seeds that are formed tend to weigh less and have poor germination.
Canadian Forest Service Publications
Information on host(s)
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