Damage, symptoms and biology
Sources of fluoride pollution are numerous: glass manufacturing, aluminium smelters and water filtration plants that add fluoride to the water. Fluoride is a gas and it spreads over readily. As a gaz, it can enter needles and leaves directly, after which it dissolves in the cellular fluids, builds up and becomes concentrated, leading to cellular destruction. Many types of damage result from these processes, with common symptoms including yellowing and discoloration of needles in conifers and necrosis followed by defoliation in deciduous trees.
Pines are particularly sensitive to fluoride pollution, but apple trees appear to be fairly resistant.
Canadian Forest Service Publications
Information on host(s)
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