Dwarf hackberry

  • Latin name: Celtis tenuifolia Nutt.
  • French name: Micocoulier rabougri
  • Synonym(s): Georgia hackberry
  • Taxonomic Serial Number: 19046
Description

Leaves

  • Leaf - dwarf hackberry

Form

  • Smaller, broader, more symmetrical than hackberry
  • Alternate in 2 rows along the twig
  • Variable in size and shape
  • Widest toward the base
  • Lowest pair of veins originate at an acute angle just below the base of the blade
  • 4 or 5 veins per side

Length

  • 3–8 cm

Width

  • 1–4 cm

Colour

  • Upper surface deep bluish-green
  • Lower surface paler

Autumn colour

  • Yellow

Margin

  • Not toothed on fruiting shoots

Petiole

  • Short

Buds

  • Lateral bud and leaf scar - dwarf hackberry

Form

  • Ovoid, flattened, pointed
  • In 2 rows along the twig, with 5 or more scales in 2 rows
  • No true terminal bud; end bud originates as a lateral bud, often bent
  • Leaf scars raised, semi-oval, with 3 vein scars

Twigs

Form

  • Slender, covered with fine hairs when young
  • Pith with cavities separated by transverse partitions, especially at the leaf nodes

Colour

  • Reddish becoming grey

Flowers

Form

  • Small
  • Pollen flowers in small clusters at the base of the new shoot
  • Seed flowers single, in the axils of the new leaves
  • Wind-pollinated

Colour

  • Greenish

Structure

  • Monoecious

Fruits

  • Fruit (left); indistinctly pitted stone (right) - dwarf hackberry

Form

  • Smaller than hackberry
  • Berry-like, with a pitted stone
  • Solitary on slender stalk
  • Seed crops abundant most years

Width

  • 5–9 mm

Colour

  • Orange-brown to brick red

Structure

  • Drupe

Bark

Form

  • Irregular narrow ridges with distinctive wart-like projections
  • Stratified layers in cross-section

Colour

  • Grey to light yellowish-brown

Size

Height

  • 1–4 m

Maximum age

  • 150 years

Tree form

Forest-grown

Crown

  • Broad, with ascending arching branches that droop at the tips

Habitat

Site

  • A variety of soils

Light tolerance

  • Moderately shade-tolerant

Range

Extreme southern Ontario and central North America

COSEWIC Status

Threatened

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